It may have both an anti-spirochaete activity and an anti-inflammatory activity, similar to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. And caution is required if patients have certain heart conditions, diabetes, psoriasis etc. Chloroquine phosphate inverts Plaquenil guidelines 2017 Mechanism of Action Chloroquine is an antimalarial agent. While the drug can inhibit certain enzymes, its effect is believed to result, at least in part, from its interaction with DNA. Chloroquine itself can cause reduced kidney function of up to 10% of patients, especially in those over 60 years of age. Renal impairment results in higher blood levels of chloroquine and therefore an increased toxicity risk. Chloroquine should be used with caution in patients with known porphyria cutanea tarda. Chloroquine can be used to treat porphyria cutanea tarda, but in a very low dose 125 mg twice weekly as a dosage of 250 mg/day can trigger a porphyria crisis, which can be fatal. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil® is a 4-amino-quinoline antimalarial medication that is widely used to treat systemic lupus erythematosus SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and related inflammatory and dermatological conditions. It is a hydroxylated version of chloroquine, with a similar mechanism of action. However, following an identical dose of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, tissue levels of chloroquine are 2.5 times those of hydroxychloroquine. For prolonged treatment of lupus or arthritis, adverse effects include the acute symptoms, plus altered eye pigmentation, acne, anaemia, bleaching of hair, blisters in mouth and eyes, blood disorders, convulsions, vision difficulties, diminished reflexes, emotional changes, excessive coloring of the skin, hearing loss, hives, itching, liver problems or liver failure, loss of hair, muscle paralysis, weakness or atrophy, nightmares, psoriasis, reading difficulties, tinnitus, skin inflammation and scaling, skin rash, vertigo, weight loss, and occasionally urinary incontinence. The most common adverse effects are a mild nausea and occasional stomach cramps with mild diarrhea. For short-term treatment of acute malaria, adverse effects can include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, heart problems, reduced appetite, headache, nausea and vomiting. Chloroquine mechanism of action lupus Chloroquine - Wikipedia, Chloroquine DermNet NZ Plaquenil oral usesWhile taking plaquenil what foods to avoidPlaquenil testing icd 10Medications similar to plaquenilPlaquenil blood pressure These medications may also prevent lupus from spreading to certain organs, such as the kidney and central nervous system your brain and spinal cord and may help to reduce flares by as much as 50%. Plaquenil and other anti-malarials are the key to controlling lupus long term, and some lupus patients may be on Plaquenil for the rest of their lives. Treating Lupus with Anti-Malarial Drugs Johns Hopkins Lupus.. Hydroxychloroquine DermNet NZ. Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses. Mechanism of action The precise mechanism by which hydroxychloroquine exhibits activity against Plasmodium is not known. Hydroxychloroquine, like chloroquine, is a weak base and may exert its effect by concentrating in the acid vesicles of the parasite and by inhibiting polymerization of heme. A Mechanism of Action for Steroids and Chloroquine on Lysosomes, No. 27. Eleventh Interim Scientific Session of the American Rheumatism Association, 1964. Eleventh Interim Scientific Session of the American Rheumatism Association, 1964. A trial conducted in 1953 investigated the effects of Chloroquine Aralen treatment on 30 people with discoid lupus. Researchers concluded that treatment with Chloroquine furnished significant improvement in early cases of dermatological lupus symptoms. Side effects Most people do not experience side effects from taking Aralen.